Skip to main content
TATINANY's Website


Pathology research paper

Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 


 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694

White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.

Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
Jacqueline Rocamora
Moreno Valley RCC Dental Hygiene Clinic
 

 
Abstract
Dental professionals play an important role on identifying different oral candidiasis, as well as helping alleviate these conditions by guiding and educating the patient in ways to improve their oral health. Various studies with hundreds of patients have been performed world wide to identify the large variety of candidiasis and different drug therapy that will eliminate or minimize these infections. Patients with different systemic diseases are more prone on acquiring candidiasis and two of them are diabetes mellitus and HIV-positive patients due to a debilitated immune system. By performing a thorough medical history review the dental professional can recommend and prescribe the correct medication for the patient’s fungal infection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation of Oral Candidiasis and Different Diseases
            The human mouth is colonized by different flora and one of them is Candida. Microbiologist have discovered more than 350 Candida species, of all these approximately 10 of them exist in the oral cavity. Candida albicans is recognized as the most prevalent species (White, Williams, Kuriyama, Samad, Lewis, & Barnes, 2004). “ Debilitation of an individual can result in the occurrence of clinical oral candidiasis” (White et al., 2004, pg.2101). This experimental design research has the purpose to enhance knowledge between candidiasis and its effects on different disease. In dental hygiene clinic some of the diseases that are encountered are diabetes mellitus, HIV positive patients, and the different antifungal drugs available to patients are also listed to help with these infections.
Diabetes Study and Results
            Diabetic patients are prone to many different infections due to their debilitated immune system, and one of these infections is caused by Candida albicans. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association conducted a research of 589 participants; the research study the intraoral tactile sensitivity of the mentioned participants and the results concluded that patients with diabetes have only a slight increase on tactile sensitivity on the soft palate and the anterior tongue. However, when the study analyzed Candida albicans the results where a lot higher on diabetic patients compared to non diabetic patients (see Figure 1). The oral complications of the uncontrolled diabetic patient are devastating when it comes to gingivitis and periodontal disease; xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction; increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral and fungal infections; caries; apical abscess; tooth loss; impaired ability to wear dental prostheses related in part to salivary dysfunction; taste buds impairment; lichen planus; and burning mouth syndrome (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can help immensely the diabetic patient by properly treating oral infections, and by giving proper oral hygiene instructions and providing information about a balanced diet (Verinillo, 2003). The dental team can also identify undiagnosed diabetic patient by a careful medical history review, and identifying symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, xerostomia and /or candidimias (Shinkai, Hatch, Cornell, & Yeh, 2004).
HIV Study and Results
            HIV-positive patients are other group of individuals prone to many different infections due to their weak immune system. To differentiate all the different infections in their body the Real Time PCR test is used, because it has shown to detect candidiasis successfully when there are cases of possible fungemia, where rapid diagnosis is a necessity and blood test is not clear (White et al., 2004). HIV-positive infected mothers are prone to Candida infections as we already know (see Figure 2), and their exposed but uninfected infants also have an increase of infectious disease morbidity at a high rate and mucocutaneous candidiasis has a frequent incidence among the 462 HIV-1 uninfected infants that participated on these study (Mussi-Pinhata, Freimanis, Yamamoto, Korelitz, Pinto, Cruz, Losso, & Read, 2007). HIV-positive patients develop many diseases and infections, and the dental team plays an important role because by providing proper oral hygiene instructions and nutritional guidance the effects of candidiasiscan be minimized.
Treatment Results
            Antifungal drugs can help different types of candidiasis infections. One of the breakpoints is the study of flucomazole which tested 126candidiasispatients, and 99% of them have a successful therapeutic coverage against Candida when the given dose is 400 mg/day (Rodriguez-Tudelia, Almirante, Laguna, Donnelly, Mouton, Pahissa, & Cuenca-Estrella, 2007). The extra and intra oral exam should be performed on every appointment, because many times the Candida is extra oral which is a sign of possible intra oral candidiasis. One example of Candidiasis is onychia which is a nail fungal infection and it is transmitted to the oral cavity through finger sucking (Mahmoudabadi, 2005). The following medications are different drug choices to treat candidiasis, and caution should be considered due to drug resistance that may develop against these drugs. Candida is usually treated with prescribed antimycotics such as lozenges or mouth washes, one of the most used one are nystatin mouthwashes, and clotrimazole lozenges. Skin infections are treated with topical antifungal creams, and severe inflamed skin lesions are treated with corticosteroids (Rodruguez-Tudela, 2007). Some people also try alternate treatment such as acupuncture to stimulate the body’s immune response.
Conclusion
            In conclusion, all the dental personal are vital aids to identify, control , and minimize oral candidemias by correctly reviewing the health history, signs and symptoms of these infections. The correct oral hygiene instructions are vital to stop, prevent, and minimize candidal infections especially when the patient has a debilitated immune system making them more susceptible to different types of infections being Candida one of the most common ones. The correct prescribed and over the counter antifungal drugs provide a faster and effective treatment against candidiasis. World wide interest is stimulating the need to develop new antifungal drugs as well as new test that will be more specific at identifying types of candidemias, and hopefully some day these infections will be treated and prevented immediately to improve the quality of life of all individuals and especially the ones with a weak immune response.
 
 
References
Little, J. W., Falace, D. A., Miller, C. S., & Rhodus, N. L., (2008). Diabetes Mellitus. Dental
            Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, 7th , pg. 233, 295. Missouri, St.          Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Mahmoudabadi, A. Z. (2005). Clinical characteristics and mycology of cutaneous candidiasis in Ahwaz (Iran). Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 22(1), 43-46. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from www.pjms.com.pk 
Rodruguez-Tudela, J. L., Almirante, B., Rodriguez-Pardo, D., Laguna, F., Donnelly, J. P., Mouton, J. W., Pahissa, A., &Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2007). Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia. American Society for Microbiology, 51(10), 3599-3604.
            Retrieved April 16, from http://www.pubedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pub
            Med&pubmedid=17646421&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Results
            Panel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=14 
Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Yamamoto, A. Y., Freimanis, L., Korelitz, J., Pinto, J. A., Cruz, M. L., Losso, M. H., &Read, J. S. (2007). Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(3), e694-         e704. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/
            Cgi/content/full/119/3/e694
White, P. L., Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Samad, S. A., Lewis, M. A. O., &Barnes, R. A. (2004). Detection of Candida in concentrated oral rinse cultures by real-time PCR.

 

 

 

 

 

n202